What Is Menopause?

What is menopause?

Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when she stops having menstrual periods. The years leading up to this point are called perimenopause, or “around menopause.” Menopause marks the end of the reproductive years that began in puberty.


What happens as menopause nears?

As menopause nears, the ovaries make less estrogen. One of the earliest and most common signs that menopause may be approaching is a change in your menstrual periods. Even though menstrual periods tend to be irregular around the time of menopause, you should be aware of bleeding that is not normal for you. This could be a sign of a problem (see the FAQ Abnormal Uterine Bleeding). At some point, the ovaries stop making enough estrogen to thicken the lining of the uterus. This is when menstrual period stop. You are not completely free of the risk of pregnancy until 1 year after your last menstrual period.


What else can trigger menopause besides age?

What is the most common symptom of menopause?

The most common symptom of menopause is hot flashes. As many as 75% of menopausal women in the United States will have them. A hot flash is a sudden feeling of hear that rushes to the upper body and face. The ski redden like a blush. You also mayu break out in a sweat. A hot flash may last a few seconds to several minutes or longer. Hot flashes can cause lack of sleep by often waking a woman from a deep sleep. A lack of sleep may be one of the biggest problems you face as you approach menopause.


What vaginal and urinary tract changes occur during menopause?

Loss of estrogen causes changes in vagina. Its lining may become thin and dry. these changes can cause pain during sexual intercourse. They also can make the vagina more prone to infectionk which can cause burning and itching. The urinary tract also changes with age. The urethre (the tube that carries urine from the bladder) can become dry, inflames, or irritated. Some women may need to urinate more often. Women may have an increased risk of bladder infection after menopause.


How does menopause affect bone loss?

At menopause, the rate of bone loss increases. Osteoporosis, which can result from this bone loss increases the risk of bone loss, increases the risk of bone fracture in older women. The bones of the hip, write, and spine are affected most often.


How do decreased estrogen levels affect a women’s risk of heart attacks and stoke?

The estrogen produced by women’s ovaries before menopause protects them from heart attacks and stroke. When less estrogen is made after menopause, women lose much of this protection. The risk of heart attack and stroke then increases.


What causes emotional changes during menopause?

The change in hormone levels may make you feel nervous, irritable, or very tired. These feelings may be linked to other symptoms of menopause, such as lack of sleep.


How may menopuase affect my sex life?

Some women find that they have less interest in sex around and after menopause. Lower hormone levels may decrease the sex drive. It may affect your ability to have an orgasm, orit may take longer for you to reach orgasm.


Are there treatments that relieve that symptoms of menopause?

Hormone therapy can help relieve the symptoms of menopause. In some cases, you may begin hormone therapy before menopause. If you are taking birth control pills, they will be stopped when you begin treatment. For women with a uterus, estrogen usually is given along with progestin – a synthetic version of the hormone progesterone. This helps reduce the risk of cancer of the lining of the uterus that occurs when estrogen is used alone.


What are the benefits of hormone therapy?

Estrogen is used to treat the main symptoms of menopause – hot flashes. It also relieves vaginal dryness and can help to relieve some changes that can cause problems in the urinary tract. Estrogen protects against bone loss. Hormone therapy slows bone loss after menopause and helps prevent osteoporosis. Estrogen also can help reduce the risk of colon cancer.


What are the risks of hormoney therapy?

Like any treatment, hormone therapy is not free of risk. In women with a uterus, using estrogen alone can increase the risk of endometrial cancer because estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to grow. Take a progestin along with estrogen will help reduce the risk of uterine problems. The drawback of using a progestin is that it seems to increase the risk of breast cancer. Also, menopausal women may start bleeding again, although bleeding may occur only for a short time.


What other therapies are available for menopause?

If a women does not take hormone therapy, there are some other options for preventing bone loss, such as bisphosphonates or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). A medication called calcitonin slows bone loss. It can be given by injection or nasal spray. Bisphosphonates are used to increase bone density and reduce the risk of fractures. Parathyroid hormone also is used for this purpose.


This information is provided by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.